Monthly Archives: November 2013

Netherlands loses ‘AAA’ credit rating at S&P

Thanks;Carla Mozee

LOS ANGELES (MarketWatch) — Standard & Poor’s on Friday downgraded its long-term sovereign credit rating on the Netherlands to AA+ from AAA
, citing growth concerns. S&P said the country’s growth prospects are weaker than it had previously anticipated. “We do not anticipate that real economic output will surpass 2008 levels before 2017, and believe that the strong contribution of net exports to growth has not been enough to offset a weak domestic economy,” S&P said in a statement. The outlook is stable, reflecting the agency’s view “that risks stemming from low growth and the related fiscal outturn are balanced against strong export performance, a net creditor position, and high GDP per capita.” han it had previously anticipated. “We do not anticipate that real economic output will surpass 2008 levels before 2017, and believe that the strong contribution of net exports to growth has not been enough to offset a weak domestic economy,” S&P said in a statement. The outlook is stable, reflecting the agency’s view “that risks stemming from low growth and the related fiscal outturn are balanced against strong export performance, a net creditor position, and high GDP per capita.”

China Aims to Curb Wrongful Convictions Amid Abuse

Thanks;  Nov. 27, 2013

(BEIJING) — Chen Keyun’s legal nightmare began in 2001 when he was accused of detonating a bomb outside a Communist Party office in his southern coastal city of Fuqing.

Chen denied committing the crime but was held for 12 years, during which he was tortured into confession and twice sentenced to death. He finally was released and exonerated this year, a case that exemplifies the miscarriage of justice that China’s Supreme People’s Court now says it wants to curtail.

Last week, it released its first set of detailed recommendations for preventing wrongful convictions: Judges should presume defendants are innocent until proven guilty, reject evidence obtained through torture, starvation or sleep deprivation and refrain from colluding with police and prosecutors.

The moves reflect Chinese leaders’ recognition that an increasingly prosperous public is demanding a more predictable and fair justice system, though party officials are unlikely to fully loosen their grasp over the courts.

“It is of significance and if adopted seriously, it will effectively help prevent the occurrence of wrongful convictions,” said Prof. Tong Zhiwei, a legal expert at the East China Politics and Law University in Shanghai. “The question is whether the regulation will be fully implemented at local levels.”

The recommendations are seen more as an effort to build a more professional judiciary, one in which judges observe legal process and make rulings that are based on sound evidence — rather than grant courts full independence.

“If courts can be more independent, then these problems can be easily solved,” said Li Fangping, a prominent defense attorney in Beijing. “This guidance can only increase their independence a little bit. On technical issues, it will be of help, but as long as there are cases where there will be intervention, it won’t be of much use.”

In China, the party controls the courts, police and prosecutors. Some judges are not trained in law, and they rarely acquit defendants for fear of embarrassing their partners in law enforcement. Experts and defense lawyers say police commonly fabricate evidence or use torture to obtain confessions.

Chen Keyun was a manager of a state-owned labor recruiter in Fuqing when a bomb exploded in 2001 outside the city branch of the party agency that investigates cadres for corruption. The explosion killed an agency driver.

Attacks on offices that represent party or government power in China are treated with great urgency, with authorities moving swiftly to solve the case and punish perpetrators to send a message of zero tolerance.

Police turned to Chen as a suspect because he previously had been investigated by the anti-graft office and punished. Five others, including Chen’s driver Wu Changlong, Chen’s wife, Wu’s former brother-in-law and two migrant workers, also were arrested for involvement in the attack.

Police detained Chen, then 48, and in the two months that followed, he said, deprived him of sleep, beat him, starved him, and dangled him for hours by strapping his wrists to iron rods on a high window.

“They treated me like less than a dog,” Chen, now 60, said in a phone interview. “I was an old Communist Party cadre who had been about to retire, I had never thought that something like this could happen to me.”

Chen said he protested his innocence until he could no longer endure the torment.

His interrogators eventually forced him to sign a confession, though he later tried to retract it, telling other investigators he had been tortured. Chen’s lawyer took pictures months later showing deep welts on his wrists. Others accused in the case also said they were tortured.

The Fuzhou City Intermediate Court sentenced Chen and Wu to death with a two-year reprieve in 2004, and three of the others to various terms of imprisonment. The defendants appealed in 2005 and several domestic newspapers reported that they might have been wrongfully convicted. The Fujian provincial high court turned the case back to the city court and ordered a retrial.

In 2006, the Fuzhou court tried the case again and upheld the suspended death sentences for Chen and Wu. They appealed again, and in 2011 the provincial court tried the case yet again. In May, the court acquitted all five defendants.

The court offered compensation of about 4.2 million yuan ($690,000) to the five of them in September but they are demanding more, as well as an acknowledgement that they were tortured.

Chen’s is one of a few high-profile cases of wrongful convictions overturned in recent months. In March, a court in eastern Zhejiang province retried and acquitted two men who were convicted in 2004 of raping and murdering a woman, after DNA evidence from another case ruled out their involvement in the crime.

The Supreme People’s Court’s latest directive is seen as building on earlier comments by its president, Zhou Qiang, on the importance of preventing wrongful convictions. Rights activists say it is a welcome move, but may not be enough to curb abuses.

“The guidelines fail to address the structural problems that create wrongful convictions — police power that goes unsupervised, the lack of judicial independence, the absence of effective remedies when things go wrong, and weak defense rights,” said Maya Wang, a Human Rights Watch researcher in Hong Kong. “Thus it will be unlikely to achieve much impact on the ground.”

Read more: China Aims to Curb Wrongful Convictions Amid Abuse | TIME.com http://world.time.com/2013/11/27/china-aims-to-curb-wrongful-convictions-amid-abuse/#ixzz2lpmYy0pi

FAO warns of the risk of a double tragedy in the Philippines

Thanks;FAO News

Additional $11 million needed to support typhoon-affected farmers to clear land, clean canals and ensure harvests for 2014

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Funds are urgently needed to help farmers clear their land and plant their crops.
27 November 2013, Manila – Immediate assistance from the international community for Philippine farmers is critical to avoid a double tragedy befalling rural survivors of Typhoon Haiyan, FAO announced today.

FAO is calling on the donor community to urgently step forward and provide more than $11 million to get money to rural people to help clean and clear agricultural land and de-silt irrigation canals in the aftermath of the devastation caused by the typhoon.

The Philippine Department of Agriculture has requested that FAO support this cash-for-work scheme, covering more than 150 000 hectares and some 80 kilometres of communal irrigation canals. Placed in perspective, it takes 10 person-days to clear just one hectare of farmland. Funding is also needed for some 1 400 communal irrigation pumps.

The call for assistance is in addition to the $20 million already requested by FAO to help typhoon-affected farmers plant, fertilize, irrigate and maintain their crops to ensure the next harvests in 2014.

“We are in a race against time,” said Rodrigue Vinet, Senior Officer in charge of FAO’s programme in the Philippines. “There is an immediate need for resources to help farmers clear their land and plant their crops. Therefore, we need to make the required purchases now and provide substantial resources directly to farmers to help them through this period.”

Urgency of timing

FAO is calling on the international donor community to recognize the urgency of the situation and contribute to the government’s efforts in meeting this critical recovery initiative without delay.

“The urgency of timing can’t be overstated,” said Dominique Burgeon, Director of FAO’s Emergency and Rehabilitation Division. “It would be a double tragedy if next spring farming families still needed to rely on continued humanitarian food assistance because we haven’t been able to support them as they recover from this disaster.”

FAO has so far mobilized over $7 million for emergency interventions in the Philippines, partly covered by its own resources and donations from Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the Central Emergency Response Fund.

FDA orders 23andMe to stop sales of home-testing genetics kit

Thanks;Olivia Solon

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The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has ordered Google-backed genetics company 23andMe to stop marketing its home testing kit because it hasn’t been able to provide proof that the tests work.

23andMe sells saliva testing kits that cost $99 (£61), which people can use at home and send to the company for analysis to better understand their genetic health risks, drug response and inherited conditions.

According to a warning letter, 23andMe is violating the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) by selling its saliva collection kit and Personal Genome Service without marketing clearance. “23andMe must immediately discontinue marketing the PGS until such time as it receives FDA marketing authorisation for the device,” explains Alberto Gutierrez, director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health on behalf of the FDA.

The FDA says that the product counts as a device that needs approval because it is “intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions” or “in the cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease”. In a letter addressed to CEO Ann Wojcicki, the FDA pointed out that 23andMe’s website talks about the Personal Genome Service as providing a “first step in prevention” and helping users understand “carrier status”, “health risks”, “inherited traits” and “drug response” and “take steps toward mitigating serious diseases” such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and breast cancer. All of these fall under the medical device uses as listed under the FD&C Act.

The FDA is most concerned with the assessments the company offers for mutated BRCA gene-related risks. Certain mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of female breast and ovarian cancers. If 23andMe’s analysis reveals a false positive, it could lead the patient to undergo a preventative mastectomy, chemotherapy or intensive screening. Meanwhile a false negative could result in a failure to recognise that the risk might exist. Similarly the FDA is concerned about the assessments for drug responses for example warfarin sensitivity, which might lead people to try and manage their own treatments through dose changes or even abandon certain drugs.

One person who is familiar with this is Lukas Hartmann, who used the service and was told he was at risk of a condition called limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, only to discover that it was the result of a bug in the 23andMe system. He details the incident in this blog post.

23andMe has been engaging with the FDA since July 2009, seeking permission to market its products in this way through a 510(k) clearance (a registration of intent to market a medical device), however, the FDA says that it has failed to provide the agency with “additional information” identified in a September 2013 letter. As such, the registration has been withdrawn.

Despite efforts to bring the company in compliance with the FD&C Act and suggested modifications to the device’s labelling to mitigate risks over “14 face-to-face and teleconference meetings, hundreds of email exchanges, and dozens of written communications”, the FDA is concerned about “the public health consequences of inaccurate results from the PGS device”. “The main purpose of compliance with the FDA’s regulatory requirements is to ensure that the tests work.”

“Even after these many interactions with 23andMe, we still do not have any assurance that the firm has analytically or clinically validated the PGS for its intended uses, which have expanded from the uses that the firm identified in its submissions,” says the letter.

23andMe has 15 working days to reveal its “corrective actions” in a letter back to the FDA. Failure to take “adequate corrective action” may result in “seizure, injunction and civil money penalties”.

In a statement, 23andMe said: “We have received the warning letter from the Food and Drug Administration. We recognise that we have not met the FDA’s expectations regarding timeline and communication regarding our submission. Our relationship with the FDA is extremely important to us and we are committed to fully engaging with them to address their concerns.”

Top Tables Update: Bangkok’s 10 Best New Restaurants 2013

Vaniceseasonal's Blog

Thanks;Gregoire Glachant, Pieng-or Mongkolkumnuankhet | Oct 17, 201

Showing our dedication, we’re already thinking about our Top Tables guide for 2014 (out in March, next year). Here are the new restaurant openings most likely to make the cut—along with a few things that have fallen out of favor.

20131120-000350.jpgStill don’t have a copy of Top Tables 2013? Get it here.
1. Opposite Mess Hall

20131120-134321.jpg

Under chef Jess Barnes’s stewardship, Quince placed third in Top Tables 2013. So really, there’s not much suspense as to whether his new venture, Opposite, will make the cut for Top Tables 2014. It’s the same wonderful Aussie-influenced European cuisine he was doing at Quince, and even if it’s been copied a lot since (see This Needs to Stop), he’s still the guy doing it best. The bigger issue is that Opposite is super noisy (a problem they’ve promised to address) and the bench seating is…

View original post 698 more words

Iran nuclear deal reached in Geneva

Vaniceseasonal's Blog

Thanks;Jim Sciutto and Chelsea J. Carter, CNN

Geneva, Switzerland (CNN) – A historic deal was struck early Sunday between Iran and six world powers over Tehran’s nuclear program that slows the country’s nuclear development program in exchange for lifting some sanctions while a more formal agreement is worked out.
The agreement — described as an “initial, six-month” deal — includes “substantial limitations that will help prevent Iran from creating a nuclear weapon,” U.S. President Barack Obama said in a nationally televised address.

The deal, which capped days of marathon talks, addresses Iran’s ability to enrich uranium, what to do about its existing enriched uranium stockpiles, the number and potential of its centrifuges and Tehran’s “ability to produce weapons-grade plutonium using the Arak reactor,” according to a statement released by the White House.

Iran also agreed to provide “increased transparency and intrusive monitoring of its nuclear program,” it said.

There was…

View original post 159 more words

Iran nuclear deal reached in Geneva

Thanks;Jim Sciutto and Chelsea J. Carter, CNN

Geneva, Switzerland (CNN) – A historic deal was struck early Sunday between Iran and six world powers over Tehran’s nuclear program that slows the country’s nuclear development program in exchange for lifting some sanctions while a more formal agreement is worked out.
The agreement — described as an “initial, six-month” deal — includes “substantial limitations that will help prevent Iran from creating a nuclear weapon,” U.S. President Barack Obama said in a nationally televised address.

The deal, which capped days of marathon talks, addresses Iran’s ability to enrich uranium, what to do about its existing enriched uranium stockpiles, the number and potential of its centrifuges and Tehran’s “ability to produce weapons-grade plutonium using the Arak reactor,” according to a statement released by the White House.

Iran also agreed to provide “increased transparency and intrusive monitoring of its nuclear program,” it said.

There was no immediate reaction from Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who has consistently asked the West to be wary of any deals with Iran.

However, Israeli Intelligence Minister Yubal Steinitz reiterated the Israeli government stance when he said Sunday morning that the last-second amendments put into the agreement are “far from satisfactory.”

“This agreement is still bad and will make it more difficult than before to achieve an appropriate solution in the future,” he said.

Obama warned that if Tehran violates terms of the deal, “We will turn off the relief and ratchet up the pressure.”

You can be sure that President Obama will speak to Prime Minister Netanyahu” on Sunday about the Iran agreement,

A senior administration official said Obama will speak with Netanyahu sometime Sunday.
Jim Sciutto is in Geneva, and Chelsea J. Carter reported and wrote from Atlanta. CNN’s David Simpson, Greg Botelho, Neda Farshbaf, Tom Dunlavey, Alexander Fenton and Jim Acosta contributed to this report.

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U.S. to Allow Transplants of HIV-Infected Organs

Thanks;Sara Reardon and Nature magazine

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Image: NIH
The U.S. is poised to overturn its ban on accepting organs from HIV-positive donors, a move that would lead to organ transplants between infected patients.

Legislation approved by the House of Representatives on November 12 seeks to end the 25-year prohibition on HIV-infected organs. It also directs the government to develop guidelines for the subsequent study of “positive-to-positive” transplants.

Researchers say that such procedures could help ease the overwhelming demand for donor organs in the United States. More than 120,000 people are waiting for new hearts, lungs, kidneys and other organs—a list that includes people with HIV, who are living longer thanks to antiretroviral drugs and other medical advances. Roughly a quarter of HIV patients in the US also have hepatitis C, which in its advanced form can be treated only by liver transplant.

“Any potential source of new donors should be looked at,” says transplant surgeon Peter Stock of the University of California, San Francisco. One recent study suggests that allowing donations from otherwise healthy people with HIV could make an additional 500‒600 organs available for transplant each year.

Promising precedent

The Senate approved the legislation, known as the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act, in June, and President Barack Obama is expected to sign it into law. But it may be some time before any transplants are performed. First, the federal Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network will need to develop ethical and clinical standards to guide medical research on positive-to-positive transplants. Dorry Segev, a transplant surgeon at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland who lobbied for the bill, guesses that this may take up to a year.

Such transplants are not without precedent, however. Elmi Muller, a transplant surgeon at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, has pioneered positive-to-positive kidney transplants, conducting 26 since 2008.

“I felt that where these patients didn’t have much option, there was not much to lose,” says Muller. Approximately 20% of South Africa’s population is infected with HIV, but those who need new kidneys are usually not even considered for dialysis—much less transplant surgery. Until antiretroviral drugs became widely available a few years ago, HIV-positive South Africans were not expected to live very long.

There are also concerns about “superinfecting” an HIV-positive patient with a second strain of the virus carried by a donor organ, particularly if that strain is resistant to antiretroviral drugs. And it is not clear how immune-boosting antiretroviral drugs will interact with the drugs that transplant patients take to prevent their bodies from rejecting donor organs. High, possibly toxic, doses of immunosuppressant medication may be required to prevent organ rejection in a recipient who is also taking antiretroviral drugs. Some research suggests that HIV-infected individuals seem to be more likely to reject new organs.In the past five years, only two of Muller’s 26 transplants have failed, adding weight to her argument that the benefits of the procedures outweigh their risks. Yet Muller says her research also highlights the need for continued study of the safety and efficacy of transplants from HIV-positive donors. For example, while the organ recipients in her study are generally healthy, a few of their donor kidneys show structural changes that may be caused by HIV—and Muller does not know whether the changes are harmful.

Despite those caveats, researchers are hopeful that investigating positive-to-positive transplants will yield valuable clinical insights into the functioning of HIV and the human immune system. Says Stock, “There is just so much to learn.”

This article is reproduced with permission from the magazine Nature. The article was first published on November 13, 2013.

Top Tables Update: Bangkok’s 10 Best New Restaurants 2013

Thanks;Gregoire Glachant, Pieng-or Mongkolkumnuankhet | Oct 17, 201

Showing our dedication, we’re already thinking about our Top Tables guide for 2014 (out in March, next year). Here are the new restaurant openings most likely to make the cut—along with a few things that have fallen out of favor.

20131120-000350.jpgStill don’t have a copy of Top Tables 2013? Get it here.
1. Opposite Mess Hall

20131120-134321.jpg

Under chef Jess Barnes’s stewardship, Quince placed third in Top Tables 2013. So really, there’s not much suspense as to whether his new venture, Opposite, will make the cut for Top Tables 2014. It’s the same wonderful Aussie-influenced European cuisine he was doing at Quince, and even if it’s been copied a lot since (see This Needs to Stop), he’s still the guy doing it best. The bigger issue is that Opposite is super noisy (a problem they’ve promised to address) and the bench seating is not the most comfortable. Also, the kitchen is tiny, meaning Barnes can’t do some of his more elaborate, or slower-cooked dishes in there—no bone marrow risotto, for example.
Eat this: Steamed Chinese bun with pork belly, slaw, shrimp mayo and pickled cucumber (B140).
27/1 Sukhumvit Soi 51, 02-662-6330. Open Tue-Sun 7pm-midnight
2 Paste
Paste is one of the most exciting openings this year. For one, it’s Thai food, which always gets extra points in our book. Secondly, the Australian-Thai couple in the kitchen isn’t shy of personalizing recipes (please don’t call it fusion). Thirdly, the food is delicious. The space, a narrow shophouse, is definitely cozy, but the separation between back and front of the house is a tad clumsy. We had to put up with the din of waiters putting away cutlery in the cupboard next to us for nearly an entire meal once. We’ve also been awkwardly seated with a view on the open kitchen, despite never interacting with the chef (in a place this tiny, trust us, it can feel odd).
Eat this: Stock-poached pork neck with chili, red grapefruit, local flowers and toasted sticky rice (B380).
120/6 Sukhumvit Soi 49, 02-392-4313. Open Wed-Sun noon-2:30pm;Tue-Sun 6pm-midnight
3 Chef Man

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The first Chef Man opened at the Eastin Grand Hotel Sathorn where it generated instant buzz as the new go-to place for dim sum. Chef Man’s second branch, at the Eastin Hotel Makkasan has done it again, with reservations an absolute must if you’re hoping to sample a steamed cream bun with salted egg or a pork dumpling with abalone. As for the piece de resistance, Chef Wai Yin Man likes to boast about his B2 million kiln made especially for peking duck (B1,200) and his Beijing-native cook who serves up the dish. Do be punctual as the duck will be ready the very minute you booked the table—but note that there’s now also a third branch in Bang Na.
Eat this: Steamed cream bun with salted egg (B110).
3/F, Eastin Grand Sathorn, Sathorn Rd., 02-212-3741. BTS Surasak. Open daily 11:30am-2:30pm; 6-10pm
4 Hong Bao
Run by the high-rolling investor behind Water Library, this Chinese restaurant is another place stirring people into a dim sum delirium. While the food leans towards a decidedly Cantonese direction, the decor is quite lively and, unlike most typical Chinese restaurants, features Shanghainese accents like dark red and black lacquer and basket ceiling lamps. Noon is the best time to visit as, while some of the regular dishes are merely OK, their expertly prepared dim sum packs some serious wow factor.
Eat this: Steamed buns stuffed with lava cream and salted egg (B110).
G/F, Thanya Shopping Park, Srinakarin Rd., 02-108-6055. Open daily 11:30am-2:30pm, 5-10pm
5 Maya

20131120-162723.jpgYou wouldn’t expect a Holiday Inn to be the center of a big buzz, but Maya’s striking cantilevered structure on the 29/F of the new hotel on Sukhumvit Soi 22 has certainly been turning heads. The kitchen serves up the North Indian culinary creations by Chef Ramneek Singh Lamba such as murgh chandi kebab (marinated chicken with yogurt, cardamom and mace, B380) and crispy okra with cashew and mango powder (B320). Is it going to be competition for heavyweights Indus and Rang Mahal? It’s a still a bit early to tell.
Eat this: Jhinga khada masala (king prawns with shallots, tomatoes, spring onion and spices, B800).
Holiday Inn Sukhumvit, Sukhumvit Soi 22, 02-683-4704. BTS Phrom Pong. Open daily 6pm-1am
6 Rocket

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Rocket is bordering on annoyingly hipster, with its marbletop bar, brunch-y menu and Scandinavian-style furniture. Still, it’s definitely one of the more handsome places out there, and the food, while very simple, is both tasty and fresh. Lunch is usually expedited with a salami-cheese on homemade focaccia (B175) or gravlax on Danish rye (B175) but there are also breakfast options from omelettes (B95) and eggs benedict (B185) for those lazy weekend mornings. But while Rocket is a lovely coffee shop with its own in-house bakery, can it offer enough choice to really be considered a restaurant? We’ll have to see how the planned expansion pans out.
Eat this: Gravlax on Danish rye (B175)
149 Sathorn Tai Soi 12, 02-635-0404. Open Tue-Sun 7am-7pm
7 Scalini

Dropbox aims for $8 billion

Thanks;Fortune Magz

The file-syncing startup is reportedly seeking to raise hundreds of millions at an astronomical valuation.

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FORTUNE — Just how much does Dropbox need to fuel an aggressive push into the enterprise space? $250 million, if a report today is correct.

According to Bloomberg Businessweek, the rapidly-expanding file-syncing business is looking to raise $250 million at an $8 billion valuation in the next few weeks. That would price it higher than other promising startups, including home-renting startup Airbnb ($2.5 billion) and the file-storing Evernote ($1 billion-plus). A source close to Dropbox confirmed to Fortune that Dropbox is already talking to potential investors about fundraising, and while the reported figures are a “reasonable guess,” the amount they end up raising is “by no means set in stone.”

“What we can say is that with over 200 million users and 4 million businesses, Dropbox has continued strong momentum,” a company spokesperson said. Dropbox declined further comment.

Earlier this month, the company revealed a revamped Dropbox for Business experience that will allow business professionals to pair their personal and professional folders when it officially launches early next year. ”People think there’s this consumer version of Dropbox, and there’s this enterprise version of Dropbox,” CEO Drew Houston said then. “We think that’s ridiculous: There should only be one.”

Still, there’s no denying that the enterprise market potential remains vast and potentially more lucrative for a company like Dropbox as businesses continually migrate away from cost-prohibitive on-site servers to more cost-effective cloud-based services. (Certainly Houston believes in that potential. Earlier today, the Dropbox CEO joined Marc Benioff onstage at Salesforce’s (CRM) Dreamforce conference.) And although Dropbox would not disclose how many paid business customers it has, the number of businesses using it in some fashion has doubled to 4 million year-over-year. Put another way, Dropbox is present in over 97% of Fortune 500 companies.

Certainly, the new round of funding would help Dropbox ramp up even further against companies ranging from Microsoft (MSFT) and Google (GOOG) to scrappier competitors such as Box, the last of which is also no stranger to huge funding rounds.

“Every major Internet company competes with us,” Houston said at the Dropbox for Business event several weeks ago. “We get it.” Perhaps Houston also understands that tackling the competition head-on means fighting fire with fire, or in at least in this case, serious financial backing.