Monthly Archives: August 2017

UK Bans Card Surcharges, will Merchants Raise Prices?

THANKS ; Ryan Tuttle

Published ; AUGUST 28TH, 2017

Interchange and assessment fees were a fixture in UK news in mid-July as the UK Treasury declared merchant surcharges illegal, beginning January 2018. Heralded as a common sense move by many commenters, the ban does, however, beg the question of whether merchants will raise prices to cover card fees. The decision charts a contrasting course to that of both the US and Australia, which have both made headlines in recent years over challenges to surcharging laws but permit the practice, subject to limitations. The move may also prove valuable ammunition in the future for litigants looking to take up the charge of a recently rejected interchange fee lawsuit in the UK.

Going beyond PSD2

Surcharging – the merchant practice of attaching fees to card transactions – is a contentious issue. For merchants, it represents an opportunity to pass along the cost of card transactions that would otherwise eat into profit margins. For consumers, it is an added cost that can be confusing and at times excessive. In some cases, surcharges can far exceed the actual cost to the merchant of processing transactions, and can serve as a barrier to card usage. While a ban on surcharging under Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) was already imminent for cards affected by the EU’s recent Interchange Fee Regulation (IFR), the UK government opted to extend the ban to all retail payment methods. This ban also includes transactions processed by government agencies. Merchants – now barred from surcharging, but still responsible for interchange fees and assessments – may respond by raising prices, a move which would affect all payment types.

Australia and the US: Surcharging context

The option to implement card surcharges has a long history and is far from universally settled. While the EU has taken steps toward a more unified approach under PSD2, other countries, such as Australia and the US, have taken completely different approaches. Interchange fees in the UK are significantly lower (capped at 0.3% for credit and 0.2% for debit under the IFR) when compared to Australia (which caps interchange on credit cards at 0.8%) and the US (which often features credit card interchange rates well in excess of 3%), but still represent a cost to consumers.

In Australia, surcharges have long been a point of conflict. In the early 2000s, the Australian government began allowing card surcharges, but was forced to set stricter standards for large retailers in 2016 and other merchants in 2017 to curb excessive fees on cards issued in Australia, limiting them to the actual transaction cost.

In the US, the situation is considerably more complicated. Merchants accepting cards are not only subject to government regulations, but also to differing agreements with the card networks. In 2013, a settlement with Mastercard and Visa went into effect which allowed merchants to apply a surcharge to certain transactions up to the actual processing cost as long they also apply it to American Express. This change does not, however, apply to American Express, so merchants that accept all three of these networks are left unable to apply surcharges.

In addition to card agreements, 10 states in the US ban card surcharges. In many of the states with anti-surcharge laws, merchants are permitted to charge a higher price for card transactions; however, they are prohibited from describing it as a surcharge but must instead describe it as a cash discount. Earlier this year, the law in the state of New York was challenged in the Supreme Court on First Amendment grounds, however the issue has been returned to lower courts for further litigation and no changes have been made.

IFR and interchange lawsuits

The timing of this announcement is intriguing, given that the British Competition Appeal Tribunal just two days later rejected a GBP14 billion class action lawsuit against Mastercard that centred on merchants passing along interchange fees to consumers that paid in cash. Difficulty proving that merchants passed on fees was a major reason for the Tribunal’s denial of the suit. The elimination of surcharging in the UK should thus prove an interesting study in merchant behaviour. While in some cases these costs may be more or less in line with the costs to handle cash and other payment types, some merchants may nevertheless choose to raise prices in order to bear the burden of interchange fees, leaving January 2018 as a key date in future arguments over interchange fees.

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Most Americans can’t kick this habit, and it’s killing them

Thanks;Ilene Raymond Rush

Published;Aug 24, 2017 1:52 pm ET

*Should you give up sugar?

This article is reprinted by permission from NextAvenue.org.

With obesity on the rise and high rates of Type 2 diabetes, more people are attempting to give up sugar. It isn’t easy. Although scientific opinion is far from unanimous, there is tantalizing evidence that sugar can be as neurologically rewarding as some addictive drugs, helping to explain why it’s so hard to kick the habit.

Even figuring out how much sugar you eat is tricky. As Gary Taubes points out in his book, “The Case Against Sugar,” the sweet stuff appears in everything from breakfast cereals to tobacco. And sugar can evade even careful label-readers, masquerading as glucose, fruit juice concentrate, high fructose syrup and sucrose.

75 pounds of sugar a year

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, average consumption of added sugars amounts to about 75 pounds of sugar per person a year.

Taubes find the widespread idea of sugar as simply “empty calories” naïve. Instead, he sees sugar as having specific and possibly harmful effects in the human body.

“Different carbohydrates, like glucose and fructose, are metabolized differently,” he says, “leading to different hormonal and physiological responses. Fat accumulation and metabolism are influenced profoundly by these hormones.”

“People act as though all that matters is the dose, but when you talk about sugar like any other drug you have a paradigm shift,” says Taubes. “Why does Zoloft [an antidepressant] do something different than Lipitor [used to lower cholesterol]? No matter what dose we give a patient of Lipitor, it’s never going to be an antidepressant.

“We keep talking about what’s the right dose of sugar rather than how it works in the body,” Taubes says. “We need to look at it differently.”

Sugars for fats: a poor trade-off

“I think we’re just starting to understand the short- and long-term problems that increased sugar intake can cause to the human body,” says Dr. David Becker, associate director of the preventive and integrative heart health program at the Temple Heart and Vascular Institute in Philadelphia. “From the heart point of view, sugar raises [unhealthy] triglycerides, lowers [healthy] HDL and causes something called metabolic syndrome, a condition where the body can’t process things normally. As we get older, this is as powerful a risk factor as high cholesterol, which causes an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia and sets the body up to have [a heart attack] over time.””

The dilemma is that “we traded one problem for another,” says Becker. Over the years, in giving up cholesterol, people turned to processed foods that were low in saturated fat but high in sugar.

“But because cholesterol is bad, that doesn’t mean sugar is good. They’re both bad for you,” Becker says.

So what should people eat?

Becker suggests the Mediterranean diet — which is high in healthy fats, proteins and complex carbohydrates such as legumes or whole grains — as one option.

“Diets have been operating between polar extremes,” says Becker. “On one end, there is the Ornish plan, which cuts fats below 10%, which means people eat more junk carbs such as white breads, pasta and sugar, to make up for missing calories. Then there is the Atkins diet, which is very high in saturated fat. I believe we need some balance.”

‘Stepping down’ from sugar

“You can definitely live without sugar,” says Susan Renda, assistant professor of community and public health at Johns Hopkins Medical School. “Mainly, it’s a source of quick energy that rapidly raises blood sugar. If you’re running a marathon, you might need that burst of energy, but in most cases you don’t.”

For those who can’t go cold turkey, Renda advises a “step-down” approach.

“First, be aware of the foods you’re eating. Sugar is everywhere, even in bread, where high fructose corn syrup can be used to help the yeast grow. People aren’t aware of how much sugar they consume.”

Then, she recommends substitutions.

“Pick a processed or refined carbohydrate and substitute a food of the earth, something closer to its natural state,” says Renda. “If you eat ice cream every night, consider substituting a handful of grapes or a few nuts three nights a week.”

Her third step is to work hard to enjoy whatever food you select.

“We tend to eat things we like very quickly. Choose a corner of a bar of dark chocolate — which is healthier than milk chocolate — and eat it very, very slowly,” says Renda.

Skip the soda

Becker finds that the simplest tip for many people is to watch what you drink.

“Sugary sodas are the most harmful — you can have 10 teaspoons of sugar in a single can. And fruit juices aren’t much better,” he says. “Get back to water, and if you must, put a tiny bit of fruit juice in it. It’s something that cuts down the calories and makes a huge difference.”

Despite Becker’s best advice, he admits that not many of his patients abandon sugar completely.

Don’t miss: Still not losing weight? These may be the reasons why

“We need a lot of educating,” he says. “People like things that taste good. But this is a condition that can be cured. Try a sugar purge for a couple of weeks — people say that within two or three weeks they lose the taste for sugar really quickly.”

Ilene Raymond Rush is a health and science writer whose work appears in the Philadelphia Inquirer, Diabetic Lifestyle, Diabetic Living, Good Housekeeping, Weight Watchers Magazine, Philadelphia Magazine and many other publications. She lives in Elkins Park, a suburb of Philadelphia, with her husband and overweight schnauzer, Noodle.

Barcelona Terror Attack – Impact on Tourism in Spain

Thanks;Caroline Bremner

Published;August,23

23RD, Following the terrorist attacks in Spain, targeting La Ramblas in Barcelona, on 17 August 2017, where 13 people were murdered and 50 more were injured, it is likely that there will be a short-term impact on inbound tourism demand with forecast demand potential reduced by 0.3%.

Potential impact

Based on Euromonitor International’s Travel Forecast Model, it is likely that the impact could lead to the loss of 200,000 tourists, which would lead to growth in arrivals of 2.8% instead of the forecast 3.1% for 2017. This would lead to 77.6 million visitors, rather than the baseline forecast of 77.8 million. The countries that will benefit from any potential displaced demand, shifting away from Spain to choose alternative destinations, will mainly be France and Italy.

The UK is Spain’s largest source market for tourism, and it is expected that potentially 46,000 less British travellers would go to Spain as a result of the terror attacks, compared to 30,000 less French and Germans both. Despite the attacks, UK arrivals to Spain are still forecast to grow by 1.3% from 17.8 million to 18.0 million in 2017 due to Spain’s strong value for money proposition.

Spain is the world’s second largest tourist destination after France, and Barcelona is the jewel in Spain’s crown, expected to welcome 7.6 million international tourists in 2017. The popularity of Spain and Barcelona will continue despite the tragic events on Las Ramblas, with continued tourism growth expected thanks to the country’s popularity, diverse product offer offering sun and beach, city, health and wellness, and adventure, and strong value for money.

Recent international media coverage has spotlighted Barcelona’s over-tourism issues, where the city is struggling from over-capacity and this is an important discussion that will continue to be talked about as Europe looks to develop sustainable tourism development, that benefits residents and tourists alike.

Top GLOBAL DESTINATIONS FOR INBOUND ARRIVALS 2017

SCENARIO IMPACT OF MODERATE TERRORISM ATTACK ON THE TOP FIVE MARKETS TO SPAIN, INCLUDING THE UK 2017

TOTAL ARRIVALS TO SPAIN BASELINE VS FORECAST TERRORISM ATTACK SCENARIO 2017

ARRIVALS BY COUNTRY TO SPAIN AFTER A TERRORISM ATTACK SCENARIO 2017

There’s a new way to mine for lithium and it’s right here in the U.S.

Thanks;Claudia Assis

Published: Aug 19, 2017 4:14 p.m. ET

Crater Lake in Oregon, a caldera lake formed after a volcano collapse.

Using trace elements as proxy, Stanford says it is easier to detect lithium in supervolcano lake deposits

Scientists at Stanford University say they have found a new way to detect large deposits of lithium, an essential component of rechargeable batteries powering everything from common household electronics and smartphones to electric vehicles.

Stanford researchers say that lake sediments within supervolcanoes can host lithium-rich clay deposits, which would be an important step toward diversifying the supply of the metal—most lithium found in today’s electronics come from deposits in rock formations in Australia and salt flats in Chile. Moreover, trace elements in such deposits can be used as a proxy for lithium, they say in a study.

“Supervolcanoes” produce massive eruptions and their calderas, formed after the volcano literally blows its roof off, are their most recognizable feature. The huge hole post-eruption often fills with water to form a lake, and Oregon’s Crater Lake is an example.

Over tens of thousands of years, rainfall and hot springs leach out lithium from the volcanic deposits, and the lithium accumulates, along with sediments, in the caldera lake where it becomes concentrated in clay, Stanford said.

The scientists analyzed samples from several calderas, and found a previously unknown correlation between trace elements, such as zirconium and rubidium, and lithium concentrations.

Lithium is a volatile element shifting easily from solid to liquid to vapor, and thus it is hard to measure its concentration. Detecting the trace elements as lithium stand-ins, however, geologists will be able to identify candidate supervolcanoes for lithium deposits “in a much easier way than measuring lithium directly,” Stanford said.

“The trace elements can be used as a proxy for original lithium concentration. For example, greater abundance of easily analyzed rubidium in the bulk deposits indicates more lithium, whereas high concentrations of zirconium indicate less lithium,” it said.

The Stanford study was scheduled to be published Wednesday in the journal Nature Communications and was in part supported by a Defense Department fellowship.

Last week, energy news site Oilprice.com wrote about potential lithium constraints, singling out five stock plays for betting on the alkali metal: Albermarle Corp. ALB, +0.43% Canada’s Southern Lithium Corp. SNL, +2.63% Chile’s Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile SQM, -0.16% ; the Global X Lithium & Battery Tech ETF LIT, +0.53% and Tesla Inc. TSLA, -1.27%  

The Global X ETF has gained more than 31% so far this year, compared with gains of around 10% for the S&P 500 index SPX, -0.18%

Albemarle earlier this month reported a modest second-quarter earnings beat, saying its lithium sales rose 56% year-on-year and almost all of the gain was in battery-grade lithium.

Analysts at UBS said in a recent note they expect lithium margins at Albemarle to remain above 40% despite an additional $60 million to $70 million in costs from royalty and community payments as well as other expenses.

“Pricing was up 21% in 1Q, 31% in 2Q and the debate continues on how long the industry can maintain that pace,” the UBS analysts said.

The answer, at least as far as electric vehicles are concerned, might be “for a long time.”

Tesla in late July launched its Model 3, an all-electric sedan aimed for the masses, and expects to be able to run its Fremont, Calif., plant at a rate of 500,000 vehicles a year by the end of 2018.

Tesla has talked about adding other commercial and passenger vehicles, including an electric semi truck to be unveiled next month.

Barcelona truck attack reportedly leaves at least 12 dead and 80 injured

Thanks;

Published: Aug 17, 2017 4:27 p.m. ET

MW-FS548_barcel_20170817131833_ZHPeople move from the scene after a van crashed into pedestrians near the pedestrianized central thoroughfare Las Ramblas in Barcelona

Officials embark on terrorism investigation

MADRID (MarketWatch) — A popular promenade in Barcelona, Spain, became a scene of panic and devastation on Thursday after a van rammed pedestrians, leaving a dozen people dead and dozens more injured.

The incident took place on Las Ramblas, a long, tree-lined street that is typically packed with tourists and locals, around 5 p.m. local time (11 a.m. Eastern time).

Local media were at one point reporting that hostages were being held at a bar near the scene of the attack by other assailants, but later reports cast doubt on the matter. The Associated Press cited the regional president in reporting that two suspects had been arrested.

The Wall Street Journal, citing the jidahist-activity-monitoring organization SITE Intelligence Group, reported that Islamic State had claimed responsibility for the attack. Spain’s prime minister, Mariano Rajoy, tweeted that terrorists would never defeat a united people who love freedom.

The seaside city was on lockdown in the immediate wake of the attack, with residents told to not leave their homes and many reported to be sheltering inside stores and restaurants and bars that closed the moment news of the attack reached them.

Media reports in Spain and the U.S. indicated the police were treating the incident as a terrorist attack. The police presence on streets in the Spanish capital Madrid, some 600 kilometers southwest of Barcelona, was sharply escalated in the wake of the Barcelona attack.

Nathalie Lezcano Sticchi, a 28-year-old resident of Barcelona who lives near the area, told MarketWatch she had passed the scene of the attack just five minutes before, stepping off the Ramblas to go into a Zara clothing store on a side street.

“When I was on the first floor, one of the guys who was working [at Zara] said, ‘You have to go outside, we are going to close because something is happening at the Ramblas,’ ” Sticchi said in a telephone interview. She said a friend had forwarded her a message from his mother, who had been at Las Ramblas and seen a truck crashing into people.

Sticchi ran to her house, as stores drew their shutters all around her. “People were running everywhere, and no one understood what was going on,” she said, “and I started hearing ambulances.”

Several metro lines were closed in Barcelona, and the area remained sealed off into the evening. Police were urging individuals not to share images of the crash site on social media. They also thanked the media for pixellating images they had chose to use of victims:

Interview Series: Q&A with Dominika Minarovic and Elsie Rutterford, Founders of Clean Beauty Co

THANKS; Pia Ostermann

Published;August 17th, 2017

Euromonitor International is pleased to present an interview with Dominika Minarovic and Elsie Rutterford, Founders of Clean Beauty Co.

Clean Beauty Co started with a shared love for health and wellness. It began with a natural beauty blog, workshops, and a beauty recipe book, which quickly transformed into the launch of beauty products under the brand BYBI, which stands for ‘By Beauty Insiders’, in March 2017.

What made you decide to start Clean Beauty Co?

We saw there was a disconnect between people scrutinising labels and being picky about what they eat, but not applying the same rules to their use of cosmetics. This disconnect made us question the labels of our favourite products, and what we found propelled us to become more educated consumers. We documented this journey across our blog and social media, and Clean Beauty Co was born.

We started sharing beauty product recipes on the Clean Beauty Co platform, which quickly developed into a series of DIY workshops. These workshops started in 2016, and gave us a few hours with our audience to understand their concerns, what they’re thinking about the market, while they are walking away with knowledge and beauty products. We also published our book “Clean Beauty” in January 2017. From then we started seeing revenue coming in even without launching any products. Next came our product range, and we launched Babe Balm and Prime Time in March and May 2017, and we have plans to extend the range this year.

Transparency and integrity are the fundamental pillars of the Clean Beauty Co, which is split across the content and BYBI Beauty, the product arm of the business.

When you talk about the Clean Beauty Company, what does ‘Clean’ mean?

Clean beauty is for us, about stripping away the fluff and pointless fillers found in mainstream beauty products, and formulating with purpose. Every ingredient used has holistic as well as functional benefits, and we find that this philosophy is best aligned with natural formulation, so we don’t include synthetic ingredients in our products.

How important is the online channel to communicate with the consumer?

Online for us is a huge platform to be able to communicate with customers and get them to try our products. People feel much more comfortable buying beauty products online these days. And while there is the element of wanting to touch and smell the product, it is easier, particularly when it is a repeat purchase, to sell online. And this takes us back to our community and how we started, by being content driven. Because when someone learns with us online, and sees that we are not just trying to sell the product but share recipes, content, events and a book with them, they connect with the brand emotionally. I think across the board consumers are moving away from mass production. People are thriving for that connection with the brand, whether it’s researching them or communicating with them, but even knowing that they are produced locally, they have good ethics behind the brand.

Do you think that the demonisation of “unnatural” ingredients could be of detriment to the beauty industry?

Fundamentally, the shift that we’re seeing in the beauty industry as a whole is the demand for transparency. Brands are responding to this by not necessarily re-formulating and making their products more natural, it’s about them being more open about how they produce things. And I think that this demand will mean that brands will have to shift the way that they market and produce their products. But I don’t necessarily think that would turn people off buying beauty products.

Do you think the clean beauty recipe book could encourage cannibalisation of sales of your products?

It probably seems like it doesn’t make a lot of sense commercially that we give away recipes and then try to sell products. We think what worked in our favour, which are two things: firstly, not everyone is going to make their own beauty products; they don’t have time or can’t be bothered. Secondly, what separates us are the two brands with the two offerings which is for one, the book, workshops and Clean Beauty contents that is about very simple recipes that we share and people can make themselves, such as face masks and body scrubs. While the other is the brand product side of it, where we offer products which are not as easy to make, which for us is about driving innovation, by saying natural doesn’t have to be five ingredients or less, natural can be as scientific as mainstream beauty. It can be really unique ingredients and can be about high performance skin care, and feels luxurious.

Have you come across any difficulty in, for instance, legislation?

The issue around legislation is that there isn’t any when it comes to the terms of natural, organic, clean, and green. So it leaves the door wide open for us and what we call ‘green washing’; often bigger brands take advantage of packaging something as natural or organic, when actually it is not and nobody can actually call them out on it. The issue we have is that at the moment there isn’t really in the UK a certification for ‘natural’, but that is about to change. There is an organic certificate from the Soil Association, which is very well respected and has a very rigorous progress.

What are your plans for the future?

We’re focused on skincare, but if anything we will move into colour but that would be hybrid as we would never launch a mascara, for example, rather a tinted version of Babe Balm, or something similar.

That bespoke element is a very nice part of making your own beauty products. The way that we are incorporating this into the BYBI brand is around customising through different products. For example, you may mix the Babe Balm with our Detox Dust, which is going to make a moisturising mask for dryer skin types. As far as the brand’s next few months, we will launch a booster set, little droppers that you can drop into your existing skin care, which will be based on the customer’s skin type, environment, and night and day use.

India celebrates 71st Independence Day – peacefully

Thanks;Asia NEWS network

published:16 Aug 2017 13:42

                        NEW DELHI (The Statesman/ANN News Desk) – Millions poured out of their homes to take part in Independence Day related events across the country. 

India on Tuesday celebrated its 71st Independence Day peacefully, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi declaring that “goli” (bullet) and “gaali” (abuse) cannot resolve the Kashmir problem.

Millions poured out of their homes to take part in events big and small across the country. A shutdown called by separatists affected life in the Kashmir Valley and in some parts of the northeast.

The highlight of the day was Modi’s fourth speech from the 17th century Red Fort where he unfurled the national flag and vowed to build a “New India” minus corruption and terrorism by 2022.

“Security of the country is our priority. Internal security is our priority. Whether it is our oceans or borders, cyber world or space, for all kinds of security India is capable of defeating all such inimical forces,” Modi said amid a dragging border row with China.

He said “bullets” and “abuses” cannot solve Jammu and Kashmir’s problem but love can, urging people to embrace Kashmiris and asking the militants to take to the mainstream.

Beyond India, the day was also celebrated by Indians living abroad. Even the Indian cricket team got into the act at its hotel in Colombo.

Amid clear weather, thousands thronged the Red Fort to listen to Modi. Similar scenes were seen in almost all major venue across the country.

From tricolour marks on cheeks to flag designs printed on T-shirts, from tricolour caps to suits, the Indian flag could be seen everywhere.

Despite persistent tensions, border guards of India and Pakistan exchanged sweets along the International Border in Punjab.

RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat’s unfurling the Indian tricolour at a government-aided school in Kerala’s capital Thiruvananthapuram even after being told by authorities that political personalities are not allowed to do so triggered a row.

Days after over 60 children died in a Gorakhpur hospital, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath termed the tragedy an “eye-opener” and sought to blame it on encephalitis.

In neighbouring Bihar, Chief Minister Nitish Kumar pledged to provide good governance and not to compromise with corruption.

In Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti asked the young to give up guns and stones and also vowed to fight for the state’s special Constitutional status.

Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar ordered a crackdown on rave parties and late-night music events in remote areas of his state.

West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee unfurled the tricolour and oversaw a colourful parade at the arterial Indira Gandhi Sarani.

In Bhubaneswar, Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik suddenly felt unwell while addressing the gathering. Aides later said he was fine.

Independence Day celebrations were also reported from Hyderabad, Shimla, Thiruvananthapuram, Dehradun, Chandigarh, Gurugram, Gurdaspur, Aizwal and other state capitals and major cities.Tulips.jpg

INDIANA UNIVERSITY-BLOOMINGTON the best beautiful NO.15 (USA)

THANKS; http://www.thebestcolleges.org

The town of Bloomington, Indiana is the ultimate college town. A campus filed with over 1,200 miles of bike and running trails, this quaint town not only encourages students to embark on a sense of community it nearly demands it. Student can visit “off” campus stores, restaurants and coffee shops just a few steps from the limestone buildings in which they will live and learn. The student building on the IU campus is listed on the National Historical Registrar. The Sample Gates welcome students onto campus. Most of the campus is made of Indiana limestone sourced locally, and was built during the Great Depression by the WPA.

Indiana University- Bloomington is a four-year, public institution in Bloomington, Ind. The university was founded in 1820 as the flagship campus of Indiana University’s eight statewide campuses. U.S. News & World Report ranks Indiana University-Bloomington No. 83 in the National Universities category in its 2013 edition of Best Colleges. Indiana University-Bloomington serves a student population of 42,731 and has a student-to-faculty ratio of 19 to 1. Notable Indiana-Bloomington alumni include composer and songwriter Hoagy Carmichael and Star Trek screenwriter Jeri Taylor.

PROGRAMS OFFERED

Indiana University-Bloomington is composed of eight schools: the College of Arts and Sciences, Kelley School of Business, School of Education, School of Journalism, Jacobs School of Music, School of Nursing, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, School of Social Work. Indiana University-Bloomington offers more than 150 majors and more than 330 degree programs through these eight schools, including programs in African American studies and sociology, animal behavior, cognitive science, drama, ethnomusicology, folklore, accounting, legal studies, education, journalism, music, nursing, public health, urban studies, and social work. Indiana University-Bloomington also offers 190 master’s, doctoral, and professional degrees. Online bachelor’s degree programs are available in business administration, communication studies, criminal justice, English, technical and professional writing, general studies, health information administration, labor studies, mathematics, natural science and mathematics, political science, psychology, and nursing. Online master’s degrees are available in several areas, including in business administration, finance, global supply chain management, instructional systems technology, nursing, recreational therapy, and technology.

ACCREDITATION

The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools has accredited Indiana University-Bloomington since 1913.

ADMISSIONS

Admissions to Indiana University-Bloomington requires prospective students to turn in an online application, a $55 application fee, a high school transcript, and SAT and/or ACT scores. Indiana University- Bloomington requires eight credits of high school English, seven credits of high school mathematics, six credits of social sciences, six credits of sciences, four credits of world languages, and three credits of college-preparatory courses for incoming freshman. The deadline for automatic academic scholarship and selective scholarship consideration is Nov. 1. Applications received after April 1 are considered on a space-available, case-by-case basis.